Spelt (Triticum spelta)
Spelt is considered to be a wild plant as over centuries it has not been corrected by breeders. For these reasons, spelt is recommended for growing in organic farms. The reason for interest in spelt cultivation is due to the beneficial chemical composition of its grains, giving nutritionally valuable products.
The chemical composition of spelt grains depends on genetic factors (variety) and cultivation sites (soil and climate conditions, farming technique applied). The grain of spelt contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins.
Carbohydrates constitute the largest part of the spelt grain (60–70%), and therefore affect mainly the energy value, The spelt grain contains chiefly complex carbohydrates. Of these, the largest share is provided by the starch, which is found solely in the endosperm. The wheat grain also contains about 12.5–13% of carbohydrates that cannot be absorbed by the human organism (fibre), e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Although the majority of these compounds are not digested in the human digestive tract, they are an indispensable element of our daily diet, playing an important role in preventing such diseases as: obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, gallstones and colorectal cancer.
The protein content in the grain of spelt covers a wide range of 12–17%.
Ziarno orkiszu zawiera mało tłuszczu, ok. 2%.
The spelt grain contains little fat, about 2%,About 2% of the spelt grain is made up of minerals. Compared to the common wheat grain, the spelt grain contains greater amounts of total phosphorus (4.2-4.4 g/kg). Phosphorus, together with calcium (0.24-0.26 g/kg) and magnesium (1.3-1.4 g/kg) are the main building blocks of the organism, also playing an important role in its proper functioning.
The spelt grain contains about twice the amount of microelements found in the common wheat grain: zinc, iron, copper and selenium. Zinc, whose amount in the spelt grain is about 40 mg/kg, is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It is also thought to have rejuvenating properties as it acts as an antioxidant that protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals. The iron content in the spelt grain is about 45 mg/kg.
Similarly to other cereals, the spelt grain is a good source of B vitamins. It contains 0.27–0.36 mg of thiamine (vitamin B1) / 100 g, 0.13–0.19 mg of riboflavin (vitamin B2) / 100 g, 6.60–7.07 mg of niacin (vitamin PP) / 100 g, and 50 μg of folic acid / 100g. The spelt grain contains a similar amount of vitamin E as the common wheat grain (14.7 mg/kg after conversion to α-tocopherol).
Roasted spelt is highly appreciated by healthy food lovers. And it can be found in roasted and ground cereal beverage INKA (caffeine free coffee substitute): http://inka.pl/rodzina-inki/inka-z-orkiszem/inka-z-orkiszem/
Spelt products are worth consuming as they contain:
- carbohydrates: starch, which is a source of energy, and fiber, which is indispensable for proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract,
- proteins, the body’s building component,
- B vitamins, indispensable for the proper functioning of the nervous system,
- vitamin E, due to its antioxidant action,
- minerals, necessary to ensure proper biochemical processes in the body.