Cereals

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

belongs to the grass family (Gramineae). Barley ranks fourth after maize, rice and wheat in terms of global production. It is cultivated mainly in the northern hemisphere.

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Rye (Secale cereale L.)

belongs to the grass family (Gramineae), Rye has few habitat requirements and – as it uses the minerals contained in the ground – it can be grown in all, even poorer, soil types. Furthermore, it is characterized by a cost-effective water management and

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Spelt (Triticum spelta)

Spelt is considered to be a wild plant as over centuries it has not been corrected by breeders. For these reasons, spelt is recommended for growing in organic farms. The reason for interest in spelt cultivation is due to the beneficial chemical composition of its grains, giving nutritionally valuable products.

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Malt

Malt is produced in malt houses using a variety of cereal grains. The raw material most often used for this purpose is the barley grain, which provides pale and dark malts for the brewing industry. The process of grain malting lasts 5–8 days and consists of several steps: cleaning and sorting, soaking, drying, pregermination and storage.

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Roots

Common chicory

It is a perennial plant with the height of 0.2–1.2 m. It is most commonly found as a wild plant (var. intybus) on roadsides and pastures in the lowlands and foothills of Poland. Wild varieties are also found in other parts of Europe and northern Africa and Asia. The leaves and roots of this plant have medicinal properties, and have therefore been long used in folk medicine.

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Sugar beet

The same species also includes beetroot, fodder beet and spinach. It is a plant with a developed root system that adapts well to different climate and soil conditions. It has been commonly grown for about 150 years, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The first sugar beet varieties were grown in Europe through selecting fodder beet varieties with the highest sugar content.

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Dandelion

Dandelion is the common name of Taraxacum officinale Web. It is a perennial plant, whose height varies from 5 to 50 cm, and is characterized by stems filled with milky juice, yellow flowers gathered in large flower heads, and a taproot. After blooming and fruit dispersal, it resembles a monk’s skull, which is the reason for its Polish name (“little monk”). It is commonly found in Poland, growing on roadsides and meadows, where it is regarded as a troublesome weed.

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Dried fruits and plant extracts

Rose hip

Rose hips are particularly high in vitamin C content. Rose hips contain plenty of lycopene (an important and strong antioxidant), some vitamin A and B, essential fatty acids, and antioxidant flavonoids.

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Coffee

Arabica and Robusta

Cultivation of coffee began more than 1000 years ago in the areas of today’s Ethiopia. In natural conditions, coffee trees may reach a height of even more than a dozen metres, but in plantations they are cut to approx. 2 metres.

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